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 Hon World History Chapter 14 Notes and Study Guide
Home • ~Andy Takos • Hon World History Chapter 14 Notes and Study Guide
 
Name:                                                                   Hon World History       
Date:                                                                   Chapter 14
Period:                                                                 Section 1 Notes

Revolutions in Russia
-In the 1800’s, Russia went through a series of revolts led by army officers, students, and peasants
-All wanted change in a nation where social inequalities and injustice had existed for centuries
                -In 1881, students assassinated the reform minded Alexander II
-His son Alexander III assumed power and reinstated the harsh treatment of anyone who challenged authority
        -Ruled on the precepts of autocracy, orthodoxy, and nationality
-Strict censorship was reinstated and secret police carefully watched schools and other groups
-Russian was made the official language and minority languages were forbidden
        -Jews became the targets of pogroms or organized violence against them
-Jews were persecuted by laws that were passed against them forbidding the ownership of land and quotas placed on the number of Jews allowed in schools
-In 1894, Nicholas II became the new Czar of Russia and announced he would fall in step with the autocracy of his father
        -However, Russia was slowly changing as the world industrialized around them
-Russian factories had become the 4th in world steel production by the 1890’s
-Sergey Wittee pushed for the building of the Trans-Siberian Railroad that would span two continents
-Russia relied on foreign investment and higher taxes to help modernize their economy
-Workers in factories began to demand reform of the grueling working conditions and organized into labor unions, organizing strikes
        -Many felt that it was time for the industrial class of Russia to take over
-Karl Marx was the founder of Communism that taught about a worldwide proletariat
-Vladimir Lenin became the leader of the Bolsheviks in Russia a group that supported quick change through revolution
-The Mensheviks focused on a broader base of popular support and slow change
-In 1904 the Russo-Japanese War erupted as both imperialist nations competed for power in Korea and Manchuria
        -The Russian army was humiliated by the more modern, Japanese army
-On January 22, 1905 over 200,000 workers and peasants gathered outside the Czar’s palace in St. Petersburg to petition for better working conditions
        -The Czar was not there and officers ordered the crowd be fired on
                -Between, 500 to 1,000 unarmed civilians were killed
                        -Known as Bloody Sunday
-In October of 1905, Nicholas agreed to allow for the meeting of an elected Duma who wanted Russia to become a Constitutional Monarchy like Britain
        -Nicholas disbanded the Duma after only 10 weeks, due to distrust
-In 1914, Russia entered into WWI, which would prove to be the undoing of the Czar
-Much like the Russo-Japanese War, Russia was ill equipped to fight; lacking food, supplies, quality generals, and trained soldiers
        -Suffered over 4 million casualties in the first year of the conflict
        -Nicholas moved his headquarters to the front hoping to inspire his troops
-The Czarina, Alexandra, was left at the capital to run the affairs of state
-She fell under the influence of Rasputin, a monk who knew how to help their son Alexis who suffered from hemophilia
        -Rasputin, would eventually be murdered by members of the royal court
-On the Eastern Front conditions worsened as soldiers suffered from the harsh conditions and began to desert
-In March 1917, women textile workers began a strike in Petrograd, which soon saw over 200,000 workers striking in the streets
        -Soldiers who were ordered to put down the strike soon joined the protestors
-As a result of the March Revolution the Czar abdicated the throne, eventually the royal family would be executed a year later
-The Duma established a provisional government led by Alexander Kerensky
-The new government lost popular support when they continued to fight in the war and conditions in Russia worsened
-Soviets were local organizations of workers, peasants, and soldiers that soon gained more influence in local affairs than the provisional government
-Germany sent Lenin, who was in exile, back to Russia to take over the Bolsheviks and hopefully put an end to the provisional government and Russia’s involvement in WWI
-In November of 1917, the Bolshevik Red Guards with the support of the Soviets took control over the government in Petrograd and assumed authority
        -In March 1918, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk ended Russian involvement in WWI
                -Ceded huge chunks of land to Germany
        -Bolsheviks also took over all land and redistributed it amongst peasants
                -Took over the factories, as well
-Leon Trotsky and the Red Army now faced the White Army who opposed the Bolsheviks
-The 3 year civil war saw the loss of 15 million Russians and the Bolsheviks able to maintain power despite the support of Western nations for the White Army
-Lenin tried to fix the war torn Russian economy by allowing small amounts of capitalism to exist and encouraging foreign investment: known as his New Economic Policy or NEP
-In 1922, Russia was renamed the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or USSR in honor of the Soviet councils who had helped during the Bolshevik Revolution
                -The capital was moved from Petrograd to Moscow
-The Soviet Union became a dictatorship ruled by the Communist Party
        -Lenin would die two years after the establishment of the USSR
Totalitarianism
-Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin were the two most likely successors to Lenin    
-The two men became bitter rivals in competition for control of the Communist Party
-Stalin whose name means “man of steel,”  was the general secretary of the party and was able to place supporters in key positions before Lenin died
        -Lenin had become wary of Stalin, but was unable to head off his grab for power
        -Trotsky was forced out of the party in 1928 and forced into exile by Stalin
        -Stalin now was head of the Communist Party and dictator
-Stalin imposed a totalitarian gov’t on the Soviet people, seizing control over every aspect of the Soviet Union
-He focused solely on Russia, instead of a worldwide revolution that Lenin and Trotsky had envisioned
-Hitler in Germany, Mussolini in Italy, Mao Zedong in China, and Kim Il Sung in North Korea would all create totalitarian states
-Stalin now launched a plan to overhaul the Soviet economy by using a command economy-government makes all economic decisions
-Stalin announced a series of Five year Plans that would allow the Soviets to make up the 50-100 year gap they faced compared to other industrialized nations
-Citizens suffered as consumer goods were manufactured in short order in exchange for an increase in the output of coal, steel, oil, and electricity
        -Workers were told where they were to work and the hours
        -Quotas were set and those who failed to perform faced punishment
-Stalin seized more than 25 million private farms and turned tem into collective farms where all farmers worked together growing crops for the state
-Peasants protested violently resulting in the death of 5 to 10 million of them and many more being shipped off to Siberia
                -Peasants destroyed livestock in protest
-In 1934, Stalin began the Great Purge to eliminate any political rivals who he felt threatened the Soviet state
        -Many old Bolsheviks who had helped in the revolution were executed
        -Estimates of 8-13 million executions were a result of the Great Purge
-Propaganda, censorship, and religious persecution where other tools Stalin used to solidify power
        -Stalin looked to destroy political and social structures of old
-Women gained equal status as men under Stalin and dominated in fields of medicine
        -However, they were still expected to take on the traditional roles in the house
-Education was controlled by Stalin and curriculum was closely monitored by the state
Collapse of Chinese Imperial Rule
-In the early 1900’s, China was ready for change after years of foreign domination in trade and resources
        -Many Chinese felt modernization and nationalism held the keys for success
        -Others, wanted to stick to the traditional beliefs of Chinese society
-Sun Yixian and Kuomintang or Nationalist Party overthrew the Qing dynasty in 1912
        -Had ruled China since 1644
-Sun who wanted China to turn to a democracy that stressed nationalism and economic development only held power for 6 weeks
        -Did not have the support of the military
-Leadership went to Yuan Shikai who ruled as a dictator until his death in 1916
-The Kuomintang could not regain authority and warlords ruled over provinces in China
-Without a strong central government peasants suffered at the hands of the warlords: lacking food, protection, and internal improvements
                -Millions died as WWI was waged in Europe
-Even though China tried to enter the war on the side of the Allies in 1917, the  Treaty of Versailles awarded Japan much of the Chinese territory that had belonged Germany before the war
-On May 4, 1919, with news of the Treaty of Versailles, student protestors took to the streets in protest of Western powers and imperialism
-Known as the May Fourth Movement, eventually Mao Zedong would emerge as the leader of the new Chinese Communists Party
-Sun and the Chinese Nationalists tried to ally themselves with Lenin and the Bolsheviks in the Soviet Union
        -They received aid and military training from the Soviet Communists
-Chiang Kai-shek emerged as the new leader of the nationalists after Sun died in 1925
        -He feared the eventual Communist’s goal of creating a socialist economy
-After the defeat of provincial warlords, Chiang’s army turned on Chinese Communists and took control of the country, killing many leaders in what is known as the Shanghai massacre
-The US and Britain would both support the new Nationalist Republic of China
        -Chiang failed to bring the reforms to China he had promised peasant
-Peasants turned to the Communists led by Mao that were gaining control of the countryside
-Mao redistributed land to farmers and by 1930 his Red Army was fighting a guerilla war against Chiang’s national government
-In 1933, Chiang gathered an army of 700.000 men to defeat the Red Army
        -The communists began a 6,000 mile journey to escape known as the Long March
                -Only 10,000 to 30,000 survived
-Japan seized the opportunity of China’s civil war to invade the mineral rich region of Manchuria in northern China
-In 1937, the launched an all out invasion of China, eventually capturing a large portion of the country
Nationalism in India and Southwest Asia
-Since the mid-1800’s the feelings of nationalism had been growing in India
        -Many who attended British schools learned about democracy and nationalism
                -Well, educated Indians began to resent the rule of the British
        -The Indian National Congress created in 1885 represented mainly Hindus
        -The Muslim league created in 1906 represented mainly Muslims
        -Both sides worked tog ether to try and gained freedom
-During WWI many Indians served in the British military, as the British promised freedom to them after the war was over for their service
-Instead, they returned to the same racial divisions they had always known and the Rowlatt Act allowed the Br to imprison anyone who protested for as long as two years
        -In Punjab, the region with the most war veterans violence was greatest
-During a festival in Amritsar in Punjab, both Hindus and Muslims gathered to fast and pray
-The British had outlawed public meetings unbeknownst to many of the 10,000 who had come there
-General Dyer ordered troops to open fire on the crowd killing nearly 400 and wounding another 1200
        -Led to outrage and caused many to turn on the longtime British rulers
-Mohandas K. Gandhi emerged as a leader of the independence movement
        -He garnered great respect due to his open views
        -He became known as Mahatma or Great Soul
-Encouraged a policy of civil disobedience or the refusal to obey laws that are viewed as unjust and nonviolent protest to fight against the British
-He organized boycotts that deeply hurt the British economy in India
-The Salt march led by Gandhi was a 240 mile march to the sea to avoid having to pay for British salt by making their own
-When demonstrators attempted to shut down a British salt plant, police officers beat non-combatant protestors with sticks
-In 1935, Br Parliament passed the Government of India Act allowing for limited self-rule
-Tension between Hindus and Muslims increased as visions of future independence differed
-After WWI, Mustafa Kemal led a nationalist movement in Turkey to form a democracy
        -Separated church and state and allowed women increased rights
-In 1925 Pahlavi took over power in then Persia and renamed it Iran in 1935
        -Became a dictator, but took steps to making the country more modernized
-The Saud family took power in the Arabian peninsulas and renamed the kingdom Saudi Arabia
        -Held onto traditional Muslim ideas and values as part of the government
-Oil would soon bring prosperity to the region, but would also lead to Western nations trying to influence the region







Name:                                                                   Hon World History       
Date:                                                                   Chapter 14
Period:                                                                 Study Guide

-Revolts-
-Alexander II-
-Alexander III-
-Jews-
-Nicholas II-
-Sergey Wittee-
-Modernizing the economy-
-Worker Reform-
-Karl Marx-
-Vladimir Lenin-
-Bolsheviks-
-Mensheviks-
-Russo-Japanese War-
-Bloody Sunday-
-Duma-
-WWI-
-Casualties-
-Alexandra-
-Rasputin-
-Petrograd Strike-
-March Revolution-
-Alexander Kerensky-
-Soviets-
-Lenin out of exile-
-Red Guards-
-Treaty of Brest-Litovsk-
-Civil War-
        -White Army ‘v’ Red Army-
-New Economic Policy-
-USSR-
-Trotsky and Stalin-
-Totalitarian Gov’t-
-Command Economy-
        -Results-
-Collectivized Farms-
-Great Purge-
-Tools of Stalin-
-Women-
-Education-
-Change in China-
-National Party-
-Warlords-
-Treaty of Versailles-
-May 4th Movement-
-Mao Zedong-
-Chiang Kai-shek-
-Shanghai Massacre-
-Peasants-
-Long March-
-Manchuria-
-Nationalism in India-
-Indian National Congress-
-Muslim League-
-WWI-
-Rowlatt Act-
-Festival in Punjab-
-Gandhi-
-Salt March-
-Government of India Act-
-Mustafa Kemal-
-Pahlavi-
-Saud Family-